Knife Anatomy

Tang - The steel portion on the knife blade that connects to the handle.
Full Tang - The steel portion extends and covers the entire area of the handle scale.
Hidden Tang - The steel portion of the knife that secures to the inside of the handle.
Pins - A rod that permanently attachments the handle scale and knife tang together, typically brass rod.
Full Flat Grind - The bevel or angle that runs all the way from the spine of the knife to the cutting edge.
Scandi Grind - A type of sabre grind where the bevel creates the cutting edge without a secondary bevel.
Sabre Grind - A grind that only extends up a portion of the knife keeping the full thickness of the knife for increased strength.
Hollow Grind - Created using a wheel where the diameter of the wheel creates a concave shape, allowing for a very very thin edge with more material left behind the edge, commonly used in shaving razors.
Distal Taper - A taper extending towards the tip of the knife.
Spine - The top non cutting edge of the knife.
Belly - The curved cutting edge portion of the knife.
Bevel -  The angle portion of the knife which reduces the thickness of the knife, allowing it to become sharp.
Primary Bevel - The main taper that reduces the thickness of the blade.
Secondary Bevel - The final smaller taper that brings the knife to cutting sharpness.
Handle scale - Material attached to the tang that forms the handle typically hardwood or a hard synthetic material like G10 or Micarta.

Materials

Stainless Steel - A steel with more than 10.5% chromium which resists rust and tarnishing.
Carbon Steel - A steel that has a high amount of carbon, manganese and no other alloying elements, the structure allows very fine grain structure which can create very sharp long lasting knife edges that are easy to maintain.
Tool Steel - A high carbon steel that has the addition of alloying elements, in knife making these are typically chromium and vanadium.
Natural Handle: A handle made from a natural wood, typically an exotic hardwood.
Synthetic Handle: A man made handle material typically very durable.
Adhesive: A bonding agent used to permanently join the handles to the steel tang.